By H. Kleinkauf, Hans von Döhren
Items of secondary metabolism from fermentation and mobile tradition are in general prescription drugs, starting from conventional antibacterials like beta-lactams, new iteration compounds like dalbaheptides and lantibiotics to immunomodulators and antitumor medicinal drugs. the key fields of software of those low volume/high expense items are human and veterinary drugs in addition to plant security. during this quantity functionally established screening techniques and the purposes of molecular genetics within the discovery and technique development of compounds are emphasised. besides the exploitation of latest assets the turning out to be realizing of biosynthetic approaches allows the id of the genetic backgrounds. themes integrated are: Novel Receptor-Active Compounds - Microbial Lipids - Microbial Siderophores - beta-Lactam Antibiotics - Peptide Antibiotics - Lantibiotics - Glycopeptide Antibiotics (Dalbaheptides) - Aminoglycosides - items from Basidiomycetes - Cyclosporins - Secondary items from Plant Cells - Antitumor brokers
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Extra resources for Biotechnology, Products of Secondary Metabolism
Extensive studies of this aspect have also been conducted in the antibiotic fermentation of gramicidin S in Bacillus brevis. , 1990). Thus, in many cases less specific induction 2 Secondary Metabolism, an Expression of Cellular and Organismic Individuality 25 and maintenance by interacting regulatory bon sources causing slow growth promote devices are implied and manipulation may be production. This has been demonstrated nicely in the case of bacitracin formation in Bucilexerted by growth rate control.
Hence, strains selected for low heat production appear particularly promising. 1 Precursors and the Main Biosynthetic Pathways Secondary metabolites are formed from few starter molecules acting as precursors. They will either be modified to yield new chemical derivatives of the initial molecule or they will be coupled to oligomeric material which is subsequently modified. An outstanding variability of structures arises from the latter biosynthetic principle which combines homologous and even heterologous building moieties in a polycondensation process.
Both features, accumulation of This phosphorylation-controlled multistep precursors and limitation of repressing process involves adenylate cyclase and metabolites seem to be involved (DEMAIN, CAMP-mediated gene regulation. , 1990). The perti(STEWART,1993) and streptomycetes (CHAnent regulatory mechanism may be similar to TER and BIBB,Chapter 2, this volume). Nitrogen depletion again is a determining those shown for other global microbial regulfactor in many antibiotic fermentations (SHAations.
Biotechnology, Products of Secondary Metabolism by H. Kleinkauf, Hans von Döhren