By Max Roehr
Fermentation items of fundamental metabolism comparable to ethanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid have been the 1st advertisement items of the fermentation undefined, through citric acid and similar items of fungal foundation. As high-volume/low-price items they nonetheless occupy most sensible positions within the respective markets. a number of of those, specially alcohols, have attracted extra cognizance as attainable assets of other power vendors and chemical substances. This quantity describes conception and perform of creation of those commodities - from classical approaches to most up-to-date advancements - and in addition offers info at the appropriate uncooked fabrics. Futhermore, items relating to basic metabolism are handled during this quantity. subject matters integrated are: Sugar-Based/Starch-Based uncooked fabrics - Ethanol - Glycerol and different Polyols - Acetone, Butanol, Isopropanol - 2,3-Butanediol - Lactic Acid - Citric Acid - Gluconic Acid - extra natural Acids - Acetic Acid - PHB and different Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acids - Amino Acids - Nucleotides - Extracellular Polysaccharides - Biosurfactants
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Alternatively, precipitations can be carried out under alkaline conditions. Another commonly used method is centrifugal clarification of diluted molasses after heating. This method is characterized by its simplicity; steam, time, and space are saved and it can be carried out with only very slight losses (OLBRICH,1963). Beet and cane molasses normally contain most substances necessary for nutrition. However, nitrogen, phosphorus, and eventually also magnesium may be too low in concentration. In these cases a hydrous solution of (NH4)2S04,which lowers the pH value can be added, or ammonia (NH,) in the form of NH4H2P04,which raises the pH value (RUTER, 1975).
1982b), Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Verhaltens der Aminosauren im Verlauf der Zuckergewinnung: Untersuchungen iiber die Auswirkung von ProzeBparametern, Zuckerind. 107,1111-1119. -J. (1986), Zum Nachweis und Vorkommen von Nukleotid-Spaltprodukten in technischen Zuckerliisungen, Zuckerind. 111,1017-1025. , FLETCHER,D. L. (1966), Nutrition of microorganisms and media for industrial fermentations, in: Principles of Industrial Microbiology, pp. 58-76. Oxford-London-Braun’ schweig: Pergamon Press. RIVIBRE,J.
Maltose syrups are also used in beer manufacturing to increase the sugar content of the wort before fermentation (STEWART and RUSSELL,1985). 3 Special Syrups: Glucose/Maltose/Maltotriose/ Maltotetraose Use of special enzymes or combinations of enzymes can give more specific syrup compositions in terms of glucose, maltose, maltotriose, or maltotetraose contents (OKADA and NAKAKUKI, 1992). For example, prolonged action of Bacillus licheniformis enzyme in saccharification alone will give a 30 DE syrup containing about 10% maltose and 17% maltotriose.
Biotechnology, Products of Primary Metabolism by Max Roehr