Biotechnology Demystified by Sharon Walker PDF

By Sharon Walker

ISBN-10: 0071448128

ISBN-13: 9780071448123

This self-teaching consultant explains the fundamental innovations and basics in the entire significant subtopics of biotechnology. The content material advances logically from the fundamentals of molecular and mobile biology to extra advanced issues akin to DNA, reproductive cloning, experimental tactics, infectious ailments, immunology, the Human Genome undertaking, new drug discoveries, and genetic problems.

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Figure 2-4 Mitochondria Figure 2-5 Catalysts Control of Cell Chemistry DNA dictates the production of specific proteins, and proteins make everything else happen. Proteins that are involved in regulating cell function are called enzymes, which may break down other molecules. Also, as catalysts (shown in Figure 2-5), they may drive a reaction that produces other molecules. Briefly, catalysts are necessary for a given reaction but are not direct participants in the reaction. They may bind other molecules together in just the right configuration so that the molecules that are held in place by the enzyme will react, or they may break off strategic parts of a molecule to make a reaction move forward.

This energy storage form has a lower caloric content than fat but is easier to access. PROTEINS Lipids and carbohydrates tend to form large, monotonous polymers. Proteins become much more interesting. In fact, proteins are so interesting and so diverse that it was difficult to convince researchers in the mid-1900s that proteins were not the information storage molecules for the organism. ) Proteins form some structures; however, the most important function of proteins is to orchestrate the biochemical reactions that occur in the cell.

Figure 1-14 The staircase (Based on Figure 2-15 of Schaum's Outlines Molecular and Cell Biology by William D. Stansfield, Jaime S. Colome, and Raul J. Cano, McGraw-Hill, 1996) Internal forces cause the staircase to twist; it looks like the winding staircase shown in Figure 1-15. The same pairs are always found together, whether you are a bacillus, an algae, or a gorilla. These pairs are adenine with thymine and guanine with cytosine. In RNA, the thymine is replaced with uracil. This is a very important rule and is referred to as complementary base pairing.

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Biotechnology Demystified by Sharon Walker

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