By John E. Hobbs
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Additional info for Applied Climatology. A Study of Atmospheric Resources
The presently observed pattern in middle latitudes may imply that a very awkward kind of year-to-year variability is developing. Opposite extremes of warmth and cold, wet and dry have occurred in different sectors of the same zone. The same season at one place may tend to opposite extremes in different years, as blocking centres shift. There appear to be common characteristics between the cooling trend since the 1940s and most earlier global climatic episodes. It is possible that all climatic cooling episodes are ahke in being marked by decHning strength of the mid-latitude westerlies and increased meridional circulation.
The rest is divided between air conditioning and refrigeration on one hand, and foam plastics (polyurethane, polystyrene) on the other. In 1975 about 3000 million cans ejected more than 500 0001 of fluorocarbons, and the total output of freons (mainly Freon-11 and Freon-12) was nearly 700 000 t. World-wide production and release of F-11 and F-12 grew by about 10 per cent per annum up to 1974, but fell in 1975 and 1976 by about 15 per cent. It is uncertain how much of the fall in output was due to concern about the hazards of fluorocarbons, how much to the world economic slump and the economic attractiveness of competing products.
Compounds such as methyl bromide, used in agricultural fumigation, could contribute to stratospheric ozone destruction (Anon, 1977). Boeck et al. (1975) have warned that increasing emissions of krypton-85 from nuclear power generating stations could raise the electrical conductivity of the lower atmosphere by 15 per cent in 50 years. Consequent changes in thundercloud electrification could alter precipitation processes and thereby modify chmate. As with many other aspects of possible chmatic effects resulting from man-made air poUution, however, this stiU has to be verified.
Applied Climatology. A Study of Atmospheric Resources by John E. Hobbs