By Cesare Rossi
This e-book describes the innovations and designs of old engineers who're the precursors of the current. The interval levels usually from three hundred B.C. to 1600 A.D. with a number of exceptions. the various oldest innovations are documented through archaeological unearths, usually little or no identified, as a rule from Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae and exhibit a shocking modernity of their conception.
Most of the innovations awarded within the first 4 elements of this e-book have been conceived as much as the past due Roman Empire and should be regarded as milestones, every one of their respective box. The 5th half concentrates on more moderen centuries. The 6th half bargains with a few development development techniques.
Generally, for every of the awarded innovations, 3 parts of study and reference are supplied: written records (the classics), iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) and archaeological findings.
The authors didn't write this publication for engineers purely; accordingly they describe all of the units with out assuming huge technical wisdom. The authors’ major objective is to aim to speak their enthusiasm for the innovations and the inventors of the prior and to give a contribution to the interesting research of the heritage of Engineering.
This moment version contains new issues and chapters which are of unique curiosity to engineers.
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A perspective reconstruction of it is shown in Fig. 6. A paddle wheel was installed at each of the side of the ship; the paddle wheel was moved by the movement of the ship. Both the paddle wheels were ﬁtted on an axle that moved the mechanism of the odometer. 5 The Ancient Odometers 33 Fig. 6 Perspective reconstruction of the naval odometer by Vitruvius Fig. 7 Scheme of the ﬁrst 3 axes of the mechanism Each revolution of the paddle wheels causes one teeth rotation of the ﬁrst gear wheel; the latter by means of further gears (not represented) moves the pointers.
The main parts of the mechanism are shown, in an orthogonal section, in Fig. 10. 48 4 Measuring Time Fig. 9 Virtual reconstruction of the water clock by Ctesibius The problem of measuring hours of variable length was solved by Ctesibius by ﬁtting the dial on a shaft that was off the centre of the pointer shaft and by moving the dial during the year. The mechanism is shown in Fig. 10 and in Fig. 11. Any time the float passes through a certain position (once a day), it moves a rod that pushes one tooth of a gear.
3 is shown a meridian found at Hercolaneum, Italy. 2 Portable Sundials The portable sundial is a very ancient device; probably the Egyptian one showed in Fig. 4 is the oldest one. The manufacturing of portable sundials was signiﬁcantly developed during the Middle Ages. Portable sundials can be made in different shapes, in the following the diptych sundials and ring dials are presented. Fig. 3 Roman sundial found at Hercolaneum 44 4 Measuring Time Fig. 4 Egyptian portable sundial Fig. 5 Diptych sundial Diptych sundials are made by a couple of tablets joined by a hinge; a tin yarn is located between both the tablets’ ends, hence the yarn is tightened when the tablets are open and functions as a gnomon.
Ancient Engineers' Inventions: Precursors of the Present by Cesare Rossi