By Robert Klein, George Enders
This special attempt prep consultant allows you to try out your wisdom of crucial anatomy, histology and phone biology strategies for the USMLE Step 1; perform with 500 USMLE Step 1-style questions with referenced solutions; assessment causes for correct and incorrect answers;and construct self assurance, talents, and data.
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Additional resources for Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology PreTest Self-Assessment and Review
DNA Damage, Immune Dysfunction, and Mitochondrial Decay We hypothesize that three insidious but measurable consequences of micronutrient triage are increased DNA damage (future cancer), immune dysfunction (future severe infection and inadequate response to vaccination), and mitochondrial decay (future cognitive dysfunction and accelerated brain aging). All three of these measurable consequences are known to increase with age. In addition, evidence from our own work and that of others, brieﬂy reviewed here, indicates that sensitive assays targeted at these three end points have a high likelihood of detecting changes in individuals with modest micronutrient deﬁciencies.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 2, 2115–2117. A. A. (1996) Food sources and dietary intakes of vitamin K-1 (phylloquinone) in the American diet: data from the FDA Total Diet Study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 96, 149–154. , Bolton-Smith, C. A. (2006) Comparative dietary intake and sources of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) among British adults in 1986–7 and 2000–1. The British Journal of Nutrition, 96, 1105–1115. 45 Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
2004) Folate deﬁciency and ionizing radiation cause DNA breaks in primary human lymphocytes: a comparison. The FASEB Journal, 18, 209–211. S. N. (2007) Biotin deﬁciency inhibits heme synthesis and impairs mitochondria in human lung ﬁbroblasts. The Journal of Nutrition, 137, 1–6. E. N. (2002) Iron deﬁciency and iron excess damage mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA in rats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 2264–2269. W. N. (2008) Magnesium deﬁciency accelerates cellular senescence in cultured human ﬁbroblasts.
Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology PreTest Self-Assessment and Review by Robert Klein, George Enders