By Helmut K. Anheier, David C. Hammack
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See Dabney (1936, pp. 56, 78). 4. Cremin (1951); Kaestle (1983); Tyack (1974). 31 32 pamela barnhouse walters and emily a. bowman demonstrates, the creation and institutionalization of public elementary and secondary education in America was actually a joint public-private effort. 5 More specifically, private foundations provided funding to build public education in the South, and throughout the country they spearheaded and underwrote reform efforts that institutionalized “modern” forms of schooling that remain taken for granted to this day.
Solving that problem occupied foundations working in the field of public education until the turn of the twentieth century, and all of them confronted the challenge of being outsiders to the region. 8 A legal framework for public schooling in the South was established in the same year: as a condition of readmission to 8. Andrews (1961); Ayres (1911); Curry (1969); Kiger (2000); West (1966). 34 pamela barnhouse walters and emily a. 9 The depletion of southern states’ treasuries by the war, however, posed a significant obstacle to realizing those responsibilities.
A great expansion in the role of government, sustained prosperity, and the very success of earlier foundation efforts to build new, sustainable systems of key institutions all worked together to reduce foundation influence. New issues demanded attention: the reconstruction of Western Europe, the cold war, and the collapse of the European colonial empires; the African American civil rights movement; the persistence of poverty; the new women’s movement. Large new nonsectarian foundations had been a dramatic new presence on the American scene in the first two decades of the twentieth century, but fewer new foundations appeared in the 1930s and 1940s, and when their numbers rose again in the 1950s and 1960s, congressional hearings and new legislation sharply slowed the creation of new foundations.
American Foundations: Roles and Contributions by Helmut K. Anheier, David C. Hammack