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By Brian J. Cantwell

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28) Adding a divergent section to the nozzle at this relatively high Mach number increases the thrust by 50%. Now work out the other engine parameters. 28 × 10 J ⁄ kg . 30) bjc The ideal ramjet cycle The relatively small value of fuel/air ratio is the a posteriori justification of our earlier neglect of the fuel mass flow compared to the air mass flow. 98 . 31) The error in the thrust is about 6% when the fuel contribution is neglected. 3  γ   f τ  P A  f 0 0 . 732 . 11 can be expressed as follows 2 2 Ue U0 ( m˙ a + m˙ f ) --------- – m˙ a ---------( m˙ a + m˙ f ) ( h te – h e ) – m˙ a ( h t0 – h 0 ) 2 2 η th = -------------------------------------------------------------- = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( m˙ a + m˙ f )h te – m˙ a h t0 m˙ f h f ( m˙ a + m˙ f )h e – m˙ a h 0 Q rejected during the cycle η th = 1 – ------------------------------------------------------ = 1 – -------------------------------------------------------Q input during the cycle ( m˙ a + m˙ f )h te – m˙ a h t0 .

The thrust of this system is clearly zero since the x-directed component of the pressure force on the inlet is exactly balanced on the upstream and downstream sides of the inlet. 3 3/21/11 Ramjet flow field Now add heat to the supersonic flow inside the engine. Neglect the mass flow of fuel added compared to the air mass flow. 5 Step 2 - Introduce a burner and add heat to the flow. As the heat is added the mass flow is conserved. 5) implies that f ( M 4 ) must increase and the Mach number downstream of the burner decreases.

We shall see later that this is the basis for the increased efficiency of a turbofan over a turbojet with the same thrust. This is also the basis for comparison of a wide variety of thrusters. For example, the larger the area of a helicopter rotor the more efficient the lift system tends to be. 34) The thermal efficiency directly compares the change in gas kinetic energy across the engine to the energy released through combustion. The thermal efficiency of a thermodynamic cycle compares the work out of the cycle to the heat added to the cycle.

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Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion by Brian J. Cantwell

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