Download e-book for kindle: Advanced pH Measurement and Control by Gregory K. McMillan

By Gregory K. McMillan

ISBN-10: 1934394432

ISBN-13: 9781934394434

This best-selling ebook presents a transparent, concise, and complete view of the way to choose, set up, and retain electrodes, keep an eye on valves, and regulate ideas for pH functions serious for product and water caliber within the technique undefined. The publication covers each point of procedure layout together with the blending and reagent piping specifications which are very important for a winning application.
The crucial recommendations are summarized as key insights and the simplest practices are provided as ideas of thumb through the e-book. The rising power of dynamic on-line pH estimators is explored to make current pH measurements swifter and extra trustworthy. the most recent advancements in complex batch keep an eye on, adaptive keep watch over, linear reagent call for regulate, and version predictive keep watch over are offered to minimize reagent intake and variability.
Этот бестселлер обеспечивает четкое, краткое, и полное представление о том, как выбрать, установить и поддерживать электроды, регулирующие клапаны и стратегию борьбы с измерением рН, решающее значение для качества продукта и воды в обрабатывающей промышленности. Книга охватывает все аспекты проектирования систем, в том числе и требования смешивания реагентов трубопроводов, которые важны для успешного применения. Важнейшие концепции можно резюмировать ключевые идеями и лучшими практиками, представленных в виде эмпирических правил на протяжении всей книги. Возникающие возможности динамического измерения рН изучены, чтобы сделать существующие измерения рН более быстрыми и надежными. Последние события в расширенный контроля, адаптивного управления, линейное управление подачи реагента и модели интеллектуального управления представлены для уменьшения расхода реагентов и изменчивости.

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Extra info for Advanced pH Measurement and Control

Sample text

The Control System sensItivity and pH Proces. Gain Is a Concarn lor 2 to 8 pH Set Polnlll dissociation constants are equal. Normally pH titration curves are not sym metrical. /1 '00 .. , .. , Agure 3·1d. For a Weak Acid and Week Base, the Control System sensitivity and p H Process G81n Is Moderated Even l or set Points Near the Equivalence Point Copyrighted material 60 Chapter 3: Titration Curves " 00 "00 " 00 . / '00 o. O~ , ~ R ~ II"",,," Figure 3-1e. MultIple S-shaped Curves are Formed l rom Multiple Week Acid and Seae Dissoc Iati on Constents II They Are Spread Apa rt by More Th an Two pH UnIts 3-2.

Unfortuna tely, most set points a re near the neutra l or equivalence points on the titration curve, which coincide with location of the maximum slope. After an upset or start-up, th e pH accelerates as the operating point approaches the steepest point on th e curve. To the pH controller that knows on ly what it sees, it a p pea rs to be a fast runaway o r positive feedback response. Most of the beneficial value of the investment in a well mixed vessel in terms of slow ing down a di stu rbance has been lost.

I + P ) a, i... (I +P ) I whe re: N Nj N, N3 hi - I (2-4h) al concentration of an acid or base (normality) concentration of ions from a single d issociation (norm ality) concentration of ions from a double di ssociation (normality) concentration of ions from a triple dissociation (normality) Copyeiqhted material Chapter 2: Th e Chemistry 51 N bi pK, - concentration of an acid i (no rmality) concentration of a base i (normality) negati ve base 10 logarithmic fi rst acid dissociati on constant pK 2 - negative base 10 logarithmic second acid dissociati on constant pK) - negative base 10 logarithmic third acid dissociation constant pKw - negative base 10 logarithmic water dissociation constant - parameter for an acid or base wi th one dissociation PI P2 - parameter for an acid or base w ith two dissociati ons p) - parameter for an acid or base w ith three dissociations Pa i - parameter for dissociati on of an acid i with a sing le d issociation Pbi = parameter for d issociati on of a base i with a single d issociati on 5 - ion sign (s = -1 for aci ds and s = +1 for bases ) N ai The titration curves in plants tend to be more buffered than the curves genera ted by these equations beca use of the presence of ca rbo na tes in p lant water.

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Advanced pH Measurement and Control by Gregory K. McMillan


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