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AMPHOTERIC SUBSTANCES 41 If a large enough excess of acid is present, the [A~] becomes so small as to be insignificant compared with the ampholyte cation concentration. In such a case, we may regard the ampholyte merely as a weak base, and can calculate the remainder of the neutralization curve on this basis. Similarly, when the excess of added alkali is sufficiently great the concentration of the cations [A+] very much less than [A"""], then the basic properties of the ampholyte may be disregarded and it may be thought of simply as a weak acid.

Thorns and Sabalitschka: Th. , 6%, 567, 1378 (1919). , 60, 1227 (1917). THE REACTION OF is ACIDS, BASES, small compared with c for in this case Ki 9 practical purposes, and equation is (46) AND SALTS + 21 equals c for simplified to c [H+] all (47) This expression always permits an approximate calculation of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution of an acid salt. It yields correct values as long as c is more than 100 times greater than KI. Only in special cases is it necessary to employ equation (46).

Debye and E. Huckel: Physik. , 24, 185 (1923). E. Huckel: Physik. , H. Falkenhagen: Elektrolyte, 26, 93 (1925); Ergebn. , 3, 199 (1924). Leipzig, S. Hirzel, 1932. 1 Sutherland: Phil. , 2 N. Bjcrrum: fl Gronwail, 7. La Mer and Sandved: Physik. , 29, 358 (1928).

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Acid-base indicators by I M Kolthoff

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