By Yujiro Hayami, Masao Kikuchi
This unique case examine explores the dramatic monetary and social adjustments that the rice belt of Laguna Province has skilled within the final quarter-century. along with significant advances in rice expertise, expanding inhabitants strain, land reform courses, transforming into infrastructure, and concrete fiscal actions have speeded up the speed of swap. using a special facts set equipped from a number of surveys from 1966 to 1997 in a standard Laguna village, the authors illustrate a trend of socioeconomic improvement shared via irrigated rice components all through Asia.
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Additional info for A Rice Village Saga: Three Decades of Green Revolution in the Philippines
It looks like a long bridge hanging over the sea to an island covered by coconut trees. The road was originally made of mud and gravel, only just wide enough for two jeepneys (informal minibuses) to pass each other. It was elevated by about a half metre above the paddy fields, so that the road surface would not be submerged by the occasional floods. Needless to say, the integration of East Laguna Village with the markets was greatly promoted by this road. Prior to its construction, housewives seldom went shopping in the town of Pila as it took nearly half a day for the return trip.
As East Laguna Village is located closest to the lake within the municipality, it would have been one of the later settlements in this area. The fact that this village is popularly called ‘Tanza’ (grazing land) seems to indicate that it had been left uncultivated and used for grazing carabaos by farmers in surrounding villages until some time near the end of land opening up in this area. 1 Major events in rice farming and village life in East Laguna Village since its settlement Events a Year m m 1880s 1950s 1958 l Early 1960s l l l m m m 1962 1965 1967 Late 1960s l 1968 1972 1973 l l l l 1978 m m Late 1970s l l m m 1978–84 l Early 1980s l Mid 1980s m Early 1990s l Mid 1990s m m m m m 1994 1995 1996 Note: a m Settlement began, with extensive rainfed rice farming Land frontier closed Irrigation system constructed; complete rice double cropping established Hand tractor introduced Improved cultural practices introduced (fertilizers, chemicals, avenue planting, rotary weeders, dry seed-bed) Gama system introduced Elementary school opened (up to 2nd grade) Country road to the poblacion opened Elementary school extended to 4th grade MV introduction, with further improvements in cultural practices (intensified use of fertilizers and chemicals, hand weeding, check-row planting) Gama system diffused rapidly Operation Leasehold in land reform started Operation Leasehold intensified The Masagana 99 programme launched Electricity line extended Manila South Super Highway extended to Calamba; Masapang Highway opened Herbicide use intensified Portable mechanical thresher introduced Overseas employment in Middle East became available Job opportunities in Metro Manila increased Major rehabilitation project in the irrigation system Operation Land Transfer of land reform started Non-farm employment declined because of economic depression Deterioration of the irrigation system; irrigation pump introduced Village-based metal manufacturing boomed Non-farm income exceeded farm income Country road to the poblacion paved Elementary school extended to 6th grade Barrio chapel began to offer regular Sunday mass Events general to village life; l Events specifically related to rice farming.
This aspect was covered in great Approach to a Village 19 detail by the record-keeping project for 1975–6 based on a small sample (Hayami and associates, 1978) but no comparable data were obtained over time. Thus our data are weak in estimating changes in the standard of living and the structure of consumption, although the estimates of changes in the level’s and distribution of income are reasonably accurate. Another weakness relates to the relationship between the village and the outside economy.
A Rice Village Saga: Three Decades of Green Revolution in the Philippines by Yujiro Hayami, Masao Kikuchi